## Constant Sum Scaling

Definition: The Constant Sum Scaling is a technique wherein the respondents are asked to allocate a constant sum of units, such as points, dollars, chips or chits among the stimulus objects according to some specified criterion. In other words, a scaling technique that involves the assignment of a fixed number of units to each attribute…

## Rank Order Scaling

Definition: The Rank Order Scaling is a yet another comparative scaling technique wherein the respondents are presented with numerous objects simultaneously and are required to order or rank these according to some specified criterion. The Rank order scaling is often used to measure the preference for the brand and attributes. The ranking data is typically…

## Paired Comparison Scaling

Definition: The Paired Comparison Scaling is a comparative scaling technique wherein the respondent is shown two objects at the same time and is asked to select one according to the defined criterion. The resulting data are ordinal in nature. The paired Comparison scaling is often used when the stimulus objects are physical products. The comparison…

## Scaling Techniques

Definition: Scaling is the process of generating the continuum, a continuous sequence of values, upon which the measured objects are placed. In Marketing Research, several scaling techniques are employed to study the relationship between the objects. The most commonly used techniques can be classified as: Comparative Scales: In comparative scaling there is a direct comparison…

## Ratio Scale

Definition: The Ratio Scale is the highest level scale that allows the researcher to classify or identify the objects, rank-order the objects and compare the intervals or differences. The ratio scale possesses all the characteristics of nominal, ordinal and interval scale and in addition to it, it also possesses a true zero point or origin…

## Interval Scale

Definition: An Interval Scale is a numeric scale in which the numbers are assigned to the objects in such a way that numerically equal distances on the scale represent the equal distances between the characteristics of the objects being measured. The interval scale possesses all the characteristics of an ordinal scale, but it also allows…

## Ordinal Scale

Definition: The Ordinal Scale is a rank order scale in which the numbers are assigned to the objects to determine the relative extent to which certain characteristic is possessed. It helps in identifying that whether the object has more or less of a characteristic as compared to another object, but does not tell about how…

## Nominal Scale

Definition: A Nominal Scale is a scale in which the numbers serve only as tags or labels to identify or classify the objects. In other words, the nominal scale of measurement deals only with non-numeric variables and there is no relative ordering of the categories, i.e. the numeric value assigned to each category is erratic.…

## Scales of Measurement

Definition: The Scales of Measurement are used to quantify or categorize the variables and before any research one must identify the type of the variable under study. As different methods are used to measure different variables. The numbers or set of numbers assigned to the object has certain specific qualities that interest the researcher. These…

## Levels of Measurement

Definition: The Levels of Measurement define the relationship among the values assigned to the characteristics of the object. In other words, what properties of an object the scale is measuring or not measuring is denoted by the levels of measurement. All the scales used in research can be explained in terms of four basic characteristics;…