Planning

Definition: Planing is the fundamental management function, which involves deciding beforehand, what is to be done, when is it to be done, how it is to be done and who is going to do it. It is an intellectual process which lays down organisation’s objectives and develops various courses of action, by which the organisation…

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Partnership

Definition: The term partnership, is used to mean a business structure wherein two or more individuals, come together for undertaking a lawful business and have agreed to share the profits and losses arising from it. The management and operation of the business should be performed either by all the partners or any of them, acting…

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Sole Proprietorship

Definition: As the name suggests, ‘sole’ means ‘only one’ and ‘proprietorship’ implies ‘ownership’. Hence, a¬†sole proprietorship is a form of business organisation, wherein a single person owns, manages and controls, all the business activities and the individual who operates the business is called as a sole proprietor¬†or, a sole trader. In this business unit, the…

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Gross Domestic Product (GDP)

Definition: The term GDP stands for Gross Domestic Product, is a measure of market value of all finished goods and services which are newly produced, during a particular period and that too within the domestic territory of the country. The term domestic territory signifies a different meaning, concerning national income accounting, it includes: The area…

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Porter’s Five Forces Model

Definition: Porter’s five forces model, refers to a framework based on the competitive analysis, introduced by Harvard Business School Prof. Michael E. Porter. The model determines the intensity of competition in any industry is a mix of five competitive factors operating in different areas of the whole market. The framework is an outside-in strategy tool…

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Financial Market

Definition: Financial Market refers to a marketplace, where creation and trading of financial assets, such as shares, debentures, bonds, derivatives, currencies, etc. take place. It plays a crucial role in allocating limited resources, in the country’s economy. It acts as an intermediary between the savers and investors by mobilising funds between them. The financial market…

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Commercial Paper

Definition: Commercial Paper or CP is defined as a short-term, unsecured money market instrument, issued as a promissory note by big corporations having excellent credit ratings. As the instrument is not backed by collateral, only large firms with considerable financial strength are authorised to issue the instrument. Features of Commercial Paper The maturity period of…

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Total Quality Management (TQM)

Definition: Total Quality Management, abbreviated as TQM is a people-oriented management system, wherein all the members of the organisation, makes continuous efforts so as to maintain high work standards, in all the operations of the company. Its main aim is to make a continuous increase in the customer loyalty and satisfaction, at constantly lower cost.…

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Strategic Business Unit (SBU)

Definition: Strategic Business Unit (SBU) implies an independently managed division of a large company, having its own vision, mission and objectives, whose planning is done separately from other businesses of the company. The vision, mission and objectives of the division are both distinct from the parent enterprise and elemental to the long-term performance of the…

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Stress

Definition: In Human Resource Management, Stress is defined as a state of mental and emotional pressure or strain, caused by challenging or unfavourable circumstances. It is an outside force that rules an individual’s feelings and behaviour. It is a person’s response to an external factor (stimulus, known as the stressor) in the environment and the…

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