Internal Environment

Definition: Internal environment is a component of the business environment, which is composed of various elements present inside the organization, that can affect or can be affected with, the choices, activities and decisions of the organization. It encompasses the climate, culture, machines/equipment, work and work processes, members, management and management practices. In other words, the…

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Management Accounting

Definition: Management Accounting refers to the application of professional knowledge, techniques and concept in preparing the accounting information in such a manner, which helps the management of the organization in the formulating plans and policies, controlling the operations of the organization, decision making, optimising the use of resources, disclosure to management and safeguarding assets. In…

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Quality Assurance

Definition: Quality Assurance is a managerial tool that encompasses all the systematic actions required for providing sufficient confidence, that a product will meet the requisite quality. Here, the confidence is bifold, as in internally to the company’s management and externally to the stakeholders such as customers, creditors, clients, society, government agencies, third parties, etc. Altogether,…

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Diversification

Definition: Diversification can be understood as the corporate strategy that a company implements to increase the market share and sales volume by introducing new products in new markets or industry, which is distinct from its core business. Simply put, diversification refers to the expansion of business by entering into a completely new segment or investing…

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Functional Level Strategy

Definition: Functional Level Strategy can be defined as the day to day strategy which is formulated to assist in the execution of corporate and business level strategies. These strategies are framed as per the guidelines given by the top level management. Functional Level Strategy is concerned with operational level decision making, called tactical decisions, for…

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Competitive Strategy

Definition: Competitive Strategy can be defined as the firm’s long term action plan that formulated by considering several external factors, that helps the company to achieve competitive advantage, increase the share in the market and overpower rivals. Competitive advantage is the result of the firm’s excellence in performing activities. The firm’s external environment, has the…

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Capital Structure

Definition: Capital structure, as its name itself signifies, is the composition of the capital employed by the firm from various sources of finance. It comprises of both owners capital (i.e. equity capital and preferred capital) and debt capital. The capital structure of the firm represents its investment and financing strategy. While deciding the ideal capital…

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Treasury Management

Definition: Treasury Management can be understood as the planning, organizing and controlling holding, funds and working capital of the enterprise in order to make the best possible use of the funds, maintain firm’s liquidity, reduce the overall cost of funds, and mitigate operational and financial risk. It covers working capital management, currency management, corporate finance…

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Types of Issue of Shares

Definition: A share is that smallest part, into which the overall capital of the company is divided. Issue of shares is a process through which the company allocates fresh shares to the new or existing shareholders. The issue of shares is made to both individuals, institutions or body corporates. Types of Issue of Shares There…

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Shares

Definition: Shares can be described as the financial instrument issued by the company to raise funds from the general public. A share represents fractional ownership in a body corporate. Thus, a share is the smallest unit of the company’s overall net worth. In a joint stock company, the capital is divided into very small units,…

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