Revenue Expenditure

Definition: Revenue Expenditure, also known as Operating Expenses or OpEx refers to the expenditure incurred in the course of the day-to-day business activities i.e. in the production of goods and services and its sale, which facilitates revenue generation of the company. Such expenses do not increase the profit earning capacity of the business, rather it…

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Capital Expenditure

Definition: Capital Expenditure or CapEx refers to the financial outlay made by the firm for an asset which is expected to stay in the business for a long time, so as to use the same for more than one financial year, which not only generates enduring benefits for the company but ensures the generation of…

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Income Statement

Definition: Income Statement or otherwise called as statement of profit and loss, is the summary prepared by the company’s management, reporting the revenues, expenses, gains and losses for the particular financial year. Simply put, it portrays the final result of the company’s operations over a period. Income statement forms part of the company’s financial statement…

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Budgetary Control

Definition: Budgetary control refers to a method of management control and accounting, wherein the budgets are established, by forecasting the activities beforehand to the maximum extent and a constant comparison is made between the actual results and the budgeted figures, so as calculate the variances (if any) and take corrective steps accordingly to ensure the…

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Zero-Based Budgeting (ZBB)

Definition: Zero-based budgeting or ZBB, is an emerging budgeting technique, which is introduced with the aim of coping with the demerits of the traditional budgeting system. Zero-based budgeting is different from the incremental (conventional) budgeting system in the sense that the former begins with a zero base, i.e. from a scratch and are not based…

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Single Entry System

Definition: Single Entry System, is the oldest and most straightforward method of keeping records of financial transactions, which is rarely prevalent these days. In this system, only one side of the transaction is recorded, because of the absence of any prescribed rules and so the records maintained are more or less incomplete. In a nutshell,…

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Fund Flow Statement

Definition: Fund Flow Statement implies a snapshot of the movement of funds, i.e. inflow or outflows of the firm’s financial assets for a specific period. It represents, “from where the funds are received and where the funds are utilised” by the company during a particular period. The word ‘fund‘ refers to a sum of money,…

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Liabilities

Definition: Liability, as the name suggests, is a legal obligation which reflects an amount that the company owes to outside parties, i.e. banks, financial institutions, individuals or entities, whose settlement may lead to the outflow of the firm’s economic resources. In finer terms, liabilities are a company’s financial debts, which indicates creditors claim on business…

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Assets

Definition: Assets refers to the resources of economic value which are owned and controlled by a business entity, owing to events in the past, which are expected to generate monetary benefit in future. In the balance sheet, assets appear in the second part, i.e. after equity and liabilities. Classification of Assets Assets are classified into…

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Petty Cash Book

Definition: Petty Cash Book is a ledger book, which is used to record petty cash expenses formally in chronological order, with the date. For this purpose, a petty cashier is appointed by the firm, to pay for small payments (usually below Rs. 200) and keep a record of the same. Petty cash implies a small…

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