Decentralisation

Definition: Decentralisation can be understood as the orderly assignment of authority, throughout the levels of management, in an organisation. It describes the way in which power to take decisions is allocated among various levels in the organisational hierarchy. In other words, it refers to the dissemination of powers, functions and responsibility, away from the central…

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Planning

Definition: Planing is the fundamental management function, which involves deciding beforehand, what is to be done, when is it to be done, how it is to be done and who is going to do it. It is an intellectual process which lays down organisation’s objectives and develops various courses of action, by which the organisation…

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Partnership

Definition: The term partnership, is used to mean a business structure wherein two or more individuals, come together for undertaking a lawful business and have agreed to share the profits and losses arising from it. The management and operation of the business should be performed either by all the partners or any of them, acting…

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Sole Proprietorship

Definition: As the name suggests, ‘sole’ means ‘only one’ and ‘proprietorship’ implies ‘ownership’. Hence, a¬†sole proprietorship is a form of business organisation, wherein a single person owns, manages and controls, all the business activities and the individual who operates the business is called as a sole proprietor¬†or, a sole trader. In this business unit, the…

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Porter’s Five Forces Model

Definition: Porter’s five forces model, refers to a framework based on the competitive analysis, introduced by Harvard Business School Prof. Michael E. Porter. The model determines the intensity of competition in any industry is a mix of five competitive factors operating in different areas of the whole market. The framework is an outside-in strategy tool…

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Commercial Paper

Definition: Commercial Paper or CP is defined as a short-term, unsecured money market instrument, issued as a promissory note by big corporations having excellent credit ratings. As the instrument is not backed by collateral, only large firms with considerable financial strength are authorised to issue the instrument. Features of Commercial Paper The maturity period of…

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Total Quality Management (TQM)

Definition: Total Quality Management, abbreviated as TQM is a people-oriented management system, wherein all the members of the organisation, makes continuous efforts so as to maintain high work standards, in all the operations of the company. Its main aim is to make a continuous increase in the customer loyalty and satisfaction, at constantly lower cost.…

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Strategic Business Unit (SBU)

Definition: Strategic Business Unit (SBU) implies an independently managed division of a large company, having its own vision, mission and objectives, whose planning is done separately from other businesses of the company. The vision, mission and objectives of the division are both distinct from the parent enterprise and elemental to the long-term performance of the…

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Outsourcing

Definition: Outsourcing, the name itself suggest its meaning, i.e. source from outside. It refers to a practice of contracting out the non-core and sometimes core activities of the organisation to a captive unit or a third party. It is a process, in which business-houses handover their regular or peripheral work to the external organisation, who…

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Business Environment

Definition: Business Environment means a collection of all individuals, entities and other factors, which may or may not be under the control of the organisation, but can affect its performance, profitability, growth and even survival. Every business organisation operates in a distinctive environment, as it cannot exist in isolation. Such an environment influence business and…

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