Definition: The Job Evaluation is the process of assessing the relative worth of the jobs in an organization. The jobs are evaluated on the basis of its content and the complexity involved in its operations and thus, positioned according to its importance.
The purpose of the job evaluation is to have a satisfactory wage differential.
Job Evaluation Methods
There are non-analytical and analytical job evaluation methods that are employed by the organizations to realize the worth of a set of jobs.
Non-analytical Job Evaluation Methods
- Ranking Method: This is the simplest and an inexpensive job evaluation method, wherein the jobs are ranked from he highest to the lowest on the basis of their importance in the organization. In this method, the overall job is compared with the other set of jobs and then is given a rank on the basis of its content and complexity in performing it.
Here the job is not broken into the factors, an overall analysis of the job is done. The main advantage of the ranking method is, it is very easy to understand and is least expensive. But however it is not free from the limitations, it is subjective in nature due to which employees may feel offended, and also, it may not be fruitful in the case of big organizations.
- Job Grading Method: Also known as Job-Classification Method. Under this method the job grades or classes are predetermined and then each job is assigned to these and is evaluated accordingly.
For Example Class, I, comprise of the managerial level people under which sub-classification is done on the basis of the job roles such as office manager, department managers, departmental supervisor, etc.
The advantage of this method is that it is less subjective as compared to the raking method and is acceptable to the employees. And also, the entire job is compared against the other jobs and is not broken into factors. The major limitation of this method is that the jobs may differ with respect to their content and the complexity and by placing all under one category the results may be overestimated or underestimated.
Analytical Job Evaluation Methods
- Factor-Comparison Method: Under this method, the job is evaluated, and the ranks are given on the basis of a series of factors Viz. Mental effort, physical effort, skills required supervisory responsibilities, working conditions, and other relevant factors. These factors are assumed to be constant for each set of jobs. Thus, each job is compared against each other on this basis and is ranked accordingly.The advantage of this method is that it is consistent and less subjective, thus appreciable by all. But however it is the most complex and an expensive method.
- Point-Ranking Method: Under this method, each job’s key factor is identified and then the subfactors are determined. These sub-factors are then assigned the points by its importance.
For example, the key factor to perform a job is skills, and then it can be further classified into sub-factors such as training required, communication skills, social skills, persuasion skills, etc.
The point ranking method is less subjective and is an error free as the rater sees the job from all the perspectives. But however it is a complex method and is time-consuming since the points and wage scale has to be decided for each factor and the sub factors.
The important thing to note is, the job evaluation is considered only with the analysis of a job and not with the job holders.