Definition: The Service System is another element in the general queuing structure, that talks about two aspects: Structure of the service system and speed of service. The queuing system refers to the process wherein the customer enters into the queue, wait to avail the service and finally leaves the system after getting the service.
The aspects of service system are explained below:
- Structure of Service System: The structure means the layout, i.e. how the service facilities exist. The service facilities can adopt either of the following services structure:
- Single Service Facility: This is called a single service model, wherein the customers arrive and are served by a single server. For example, Library counter, hotel reception, etc.
- Multiple, Parallel Facilities with Single Queue: A facility that has more than one server, which renders the same type of service is said to have used a multiple, parallel service structure.For example, McDonals drive through window, where a single line is formed, and one person takes the order, another person prepares it, and the third one delivers the order to the customer.
- Multiple, Parallel facilities with multiple queues: This service structure is different from the previous one, in the sense, each server has a different queue. This means, there is more than one server, performing the same type of a task and despite a single line there are multiple customer lines.For example, different cash counters at supermarkets, where people can make payment for their purchases and the task of each server is the same i.e. cash collection.
- Service Facilities in a Series: In this system, a customer enters the first service station gets the portion of a service there, then moves on to the second station, get some service and then again move on to the third station and so on. Finally, he moves out of the system when the complete service is availed. For example, the machining of certain steel passes through several processes such as cutting, turning, knurling, drilling, grinding and so on which is performed by a single server in a series.
- Speed of Service: By speed of service we mean, the speed with which the service is provided to the customer when he enters the queueing system. This can be expressed in two ways: Service rate and service time.The service rate refers to the number of customers serviced during a particular time period.While, the service time refers to the amount of time needed to serve a customer. Service time and service rate are reciprocals of each other. For example, if 10 customers are attended on an average the service rate would be 10 customers per hour while the service time would be equal to 6 minutes per customer.
Thus, the service system takes into consideration the layout of the facility being used to provide service to the customer along with the time spent on each individual entering the system.