Definition: The Three-Dimensional Grid or 3-D Leadership Model is developed by Professor Bill Reddin, who introduced the concept of “situational demands” which talks about the way in which the leader must behave to be most effective.
The 3-D model has taken into the consideration the beliefs of the managerial grid and added one more dimension to it i.e. Effectiveness. The effectiveness means to know what was the result when one used a particular leadership style in a particular situation.
Thus, three-dimensional axes represent the “task-orientation”, “relationship orientation” and “effectiveness”. Task orientation means the extent to which the superior directs his subordinate’s efforts towards the goal attainment. The relationship orientation means the extent to which the manager has personal relations with his subordinates and finally, the effectiveness means the extent to which the manager is successful.
When the leadership style meets the demands of the situation, then the leadership is said to be effective else ineffective. On the basis of this, there are four styles that a manager adopts and is shown in the figure below:
- The Separated Manager is the one who is engaged in correcting deviations. He is the person who formulates the rules and policies and imposes these on others.
- The Related Manager is the one who likes to work with others and see an organization as a social system where everyone works together. He does not worry about the time and accepts others as they are and do not try to change them.
- The Dedicated Manager is the one who is task oriented and is only concerned with the production. He does not like to mix up with the subordinates and cannot work without power and responsibility.
- The Integrated Manager is the one who mixes up with the subordinates and facilitate two way communication. His major emphasis is on building a strong teamwork and effective communication network.
Reddin believed that the way leader behaves in a certain situation may not be appropriate in some other situations, and this led to the evolution of the 3-D leadership model.